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Naqshbandi Jahriyya in China

Founded by Ma Mingxin in 1760s, Jahriyya is a Naqshbandi Sufi Menhuan order in China practiced by Chinese speaking Hui Muslims. The name of Jahriyya comes from the Arabic word Jahr meaning loudly. The adherents of Jahriyya Menhuan recite Dhikr loudly which contrasts with the more typical Naqshbandi practice, observed by the Khufiyya of reciting Dhikr silently.

Ma Mingxin also opposed the emphasis that the Khufiyya members placed of the veneration of the saints, construction of grandiose elaborately decorated gongbeis, and the enrichment of religious leaders at the expense of their adherents.

Ma Mingxin strongly criticized the competing Khufiyya order for passing its leadership from the order's founder, Ma Laichi, to his son, Ma Guobao. Ma Mingxin himself chose his own successor as the head of the Jahriyya based on his Islamic scholarship and piety; later on, the third leader of the order was chosen in a similar way. However, later leaders of Jahriyya appointed their son to be the next leader before they died.

Jahriyya has had a history of over 230 years in China. Among the four Sufi orders in China, the adherents of Jahriyya are more than any of the other three and Jahriyya is practiced in many places in China. Statistics showed that there were 300,000 Chinese speaking Muslim Huis who belonged to Jahriyya Menhuan before 1958. 170,000 Jahriyya adherents lived in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. The center of Jahriyya in Gansu Province is in Zhangjiachuan county with a Jahriyya population of over 40,000. There were about 20,000 Jahriyya adherents living in Xinjiang’s Turpan, Urumqi and Kashgar. Jahriyya adherents can also be found in other parts of China, such as Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Beijing,

1: Shagou Menhuan
Founder: Ma Yuanzhang
Time of Founding: early period Qing Emperor Guangxu’s Reign (1871-1908)
Location of Daotang: Honglefu, Xiji of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
Followers: 150,000
Distribution: Xihaigu of Ningxia, Pingliang of Gansu, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Jilin, Hebei and Shaandong Provinces.

2: Beishan Menhuan
Founder: Ma Yuanlie
Time of Founding: 9th year of Republic of China (1920)
Location of Daotang: Beishan, Zhangchuan,
Followers: 50,000
Distribution: Zhangchuan, Guanghe, Huicheng of Gansu Province.

3: Xindianzi Menhuan
Founder: Ma Jiwu
Time of Founding: 9th year of Republic of China (1920)
Location of Daotang: Xindianzi, Xiji, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
Followers: 10,000
Distribution: Xiji of Ningxia and Gansu Province

4: Banqiao Menhuan
Founder: Ma Datian
Time of Founding: 17th year of Qing Emperor Jiaqing’s Reign (1796-1820)
Location of Daotang: Wuzhong of Ningxia
Followers: 60,000
Distribution: Wuzhong, Lingwu, Tongxin of Ningxia, Xinjiang.

5: Hongmen Menhuan
Founder: Hong Shoulin
Time of Founding: end of Qing Emperor Tongzhi’s Reign (1861-1875)
Location of Daotang: Guyuan of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
Followers: 20,000
Distribution: Guyuan, Haiyuan and Tongxin of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

6: Nanchuan Menhuan
Founder: Ma Jinxi
Time of Founding: Qing Emperor Qianlong’s Reign (1835-1799)
Location of Daotang: Xiaoxihu Gongbei, Lianhuachi, Lanzhou
Followers: 1,000
Distribution: Lanzhou of Gansu Province

7: Beizhuang Menhuan
Founder: Ma Baozhen
Time of Founding: 15th year of Qing Emperor Guangxu’s Reign (1886)
Location of Daotang: Nanchuan, Zhangjiachuan of Gansu Province
Followers: 300,000
Distribution: Zhangjiachuan, Linxia of Gansu Province

Last Updated on Monday, 26 November 2012 10:14