Xian Great Mosque was built in 742 in the Tang Dynasty (618-907) and underwent several reconstructions in the following dynasties. The existing buildings of Xian Great Mosque were mainly built in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), and expanded in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911).
Xian Great Mosque covers an area of 130,000 square meters, and the construction area is 4,000 square meters. The mosque has a rectangular layout which is from east to west. There are five courtyards inside Xian Great Mosque. The main buildings include the decorated archway, the prayer hall, the minaret (a traditional Chinese Tower), the scripture hall, the imam's dorm, and the stele pavilion, etc. The principal building is the prayer hall, which can accommodate 2,000 prayers at the same time. In the mosque there are many precious cultural relics, such as epigraphs, tablets, couplets, censers, phylacteries, paintings, hanging lamps and so on. A hand-written copy of the Quran by a well-known Moslem noble in the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) is preserved in the mosque.